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Inclinometers and Tiltmeters

 
FAQ#093 - B.R.A.IN App Devices Compatibility

 

B.R.A.IN App is compatible with Android OS (from ver.7) and Apple iOS (from ver.11).

Moreover the device have to be compatible with Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) v.4.2.

At this link you can find all the smartphone and tablet tested by SISGEO.

NOTE: the list of devices is updating time by time.

 

 

B.R.A.IN MEMS inclinometer systems

 
FAQ#087 - Could the IPI, BH Profile and DEX probes have problems in frozen water?

Sisgeo suggest that frozen water within the inclinometer casings is to be avoided due to following reasons:

- Ice within the casing will affect functionality of the systems by blocking the individual probes;
- Mechanical damages can occur to the probes, but also to the inclinometer casing due to the expansion of frozen water

In any case, inclinometers and DEX probes can work until -30°C so that sensors will be not damaged.

What can be done to avoid this?
- insert a heating cable that keeps water temperature above 0°C;
- remove water from the inclinometer casing;
- place the inclinometer/DEX probes at locations where temperatures remain above 0°C.

MEMS In-place Inclinometers
DEX and DEX-S 3D extensometer
BH Profile in-place Inclinometers
Horizontal In Place Inclinometers

 
FAQ#085 - How many digital gauges in the same chain is possible to read with New Leonardo?

The theoretical maximum number of digital gauge (RS485, ModBus) that is possible to read with New Leonardo is 245 gauges (address from 1 to 254).

This is true only if the gauge is configured in Sisgeo laboratory in "Energy save" mode: the gauges wake-up and are powered one by one.

When the "Energy Save" mode is NOT active, the maximum number of digital gauges in the same chain that New Leonardo is able to read is 50.

 

RDS Railway Deformation System
MEMS In-place Inclinometers
Tilt Beam (TB) sensors
D-Tiltmeter - Digital MEMS Tiltmeters
H-Level - Liquid Level Systems
BH Profile in-place Inclinometers
Horizontal In Place Inclinometers

 
FAQ#077 - Which are the maximum cable lengths from instrument to datalogger?

 

The cable lengths depend from many factors, first of all installation and cable protections (screen, earth, etc...). Assuming that instruments are installed in a workmanlike, for the maximum cable lengths should be followed the next suggestions:

DIGITAL INSTRUMENTS: see FAQ#073

ANALOGUE INSTRUMENTS: see both documents:

Cable length guide line with internal multiplexers
Cable length guide line with external multiplexers

 

 

 

 
FAQ#076 - Why it is necessary add a termination resistor to the last digitized sensor of each RS-485 chain?

All SISGEO digitized instruments  (IPIs, Tiltmeters, H-Level…) use the RS-485 serial communication protocol

The RS485 protocol contemplate a termination resistor.

The recommended chain connection is point-to-point (multidropped) nodes as a bus mode (line). Star, ring or multiply network connection are not recommended.

SISGEO dataloggers has already a termination resistor assembled (typically 120Ω). On the opposite side (sensors side) is necessary to mount a resistor on the last device of each chain.

Without termination resistors, reflections of fast driver edges can cause multiple data edges and consequently data corruption. Termination resistors also reduce electrical noise sensitivity. The value of each termination resistor should be equal to the cable characteristic impedance (typically, 120 Ω for twisted pairs and for only one chain).

SISGEO supply the correct termination resistor (120 Ω, 240 Ω, etc.), considering the number of the chains connected to the same master unit (i.e. OMNIAlog).

The termination resistor must be connected on the appropriate sensor connector.

At the following link an example scheme:

SCHEME

OMNIAlog Datalogger
RDS Railway Deformation System
Tilt Beam (TB) sensors
D-Tiltmeter - Digital MEMS Tiltmeters
Mini OMNIAlog datalogger
H-Level - Liquid Level Systems
BH Profile in-place Inclinometers
Horizontal In Place Inclinometers

 
FAQ#075 - Which parameters are save into SISGEO digitized sensors?

All the SISGEO digitized sensors (IPIs, Tilt-meters, RDSs, H-Level etc..) use the serial RS-485 communication protocol.

The SISGEO digitized sensors are joined through an electrical cable, so only one cable is used to take reading.

In agreement with Customer, they are configured in factory for:

-    Calibration parameters

-    Serial number

-    RS-485 andress. Each digitized sensor has a univocal address also reported in a label on the cable.

-    Powering type:

o    always on (all digitized sensor switched on together)

RDS Railway Deformation System
Digital MEMS Inclinometer System (DISCONTINUED)
MEMS In-place Inclinometers
Tilt Beam (TB) sensors
D-Tiltmeter - Digital MEMS Tiltmeters
H-Level - Liquid Level Systems
BH Profile in-place Inclinometers
Horizontal In Place Inclinometers

 
FAQ#074 - Which kind of datalogger is necessary to read a SISGEO digital sensors?

The sensors are read connecting the end cable to a Modbus Master unit (i.e. OMNIAlog or miniOMNIAlog) with RS-485 interface (DCE, Half duplex, no Echo) able to manage communication with SISGEO Modbus RTU communication protocol.

SISGEO’s communication protocol is available for the release upon request.

The power [W] of power supply must be chosen according to the sensor quantity  and power supply mode.

SISGEO suggests not to change the parameters set in factory (serial number, calibration, factors etc..)

The Modbus master unit (readout unit) must be set according to the IPI’s factory sensor configuration.

OMNIAlog Datalogger
RDS Railway Deformation System
Digital MEMS Inclinometer System (DISCONTINUED)
MEMS In-place Inclinometers
Tilt Beam (TB) sensors
D-Tiltmeter - Digital MEMS Tiltmeters
Mini OMNIAlog datalogger
H-Level - Liquid Level Systems
BH Profile in-place Inclinometers
Horizontal In Place Inclinometers

 
FAQ#073 - Which is the maximum number of digitized sensors (RS-485, Modbus), the maximum number of chains and the maximum length of cable in a RS-485 network?

All the SISGEO digitized sensors (IPIs, Tilt-meters, RDSs, H-Level etc..) use the serial RS-485 communication protocol.

1.The maximum number of digitized sensors in a RS-485 network are 250 (theoretical)

2.The maximum number of digitized sensors chains that is possible to connect to Modbus master unit (as OMNIAlog or miniOMNIAlog) are 4.

3. About the maximum distance (with digitized sensors configured in "Always On") :

a.      max. 250m (in one chain) from the 1st digitized sensor to the last sensor (physical cable length) and:

50 digitized sensors for Tiltmeters and H-Level

70 digitized sensors for RDSBH-Profile and IPI

b.    max. 1000m from the 1st digitized sensor to Modbus master unit (as OMNIAlog or miniOMNIAlog) with a suitable cable size, cod.WE606IPDZH)

NOTE: The sum of 3A and 3B lengths can’t exceed 1000m. The compliance of points 3A and 3B, avoids the excessive voltage drop on the RS-485 line and guarantees the correct RS-485 network operation

 

RDS Railway Deformation System
OMNIAlog Datalogger
Digital MEMS Inclinometer System (DISCONTINUED)
MEMS In-place Inclinometers
Tilt Beam (TB) sensors
D-Tiltmeter - Digital MEMS Tiltmeters
Mini OMNIAlog datalogger
H-Level - Liquid Level Systems
BH Profile in-place Inclinometers
Horizontal In Place Inclinometers

FAQ#038 - Do I have to power the TEL-310S before start to set-up and use it?
FAQ#038 - Do I have to power the TEL-310S before start to set-up and use it?

If the TEL-310S was supplied 2 or more month before, will be better to power it for 8 hours before starting to set-up and use it. This is to recharge the back-up battery that give troubles if it is completely discharged.

TEL-310S Telecoordinometer

 
FAQ#038 - Do I have to power the TEL-310S before start to set-up and use it?

If the TEL-310S was supplied 2 or more month before, will be better to power it for 8 hours before starting to set-up and use it. This is to recharge the back-up battery that give troubles if it is completely discharged.

TEL-310S Telecoordinometer

 
FAQ#036 - Which is the right mix for inclinometer casing grouting?

There is not an exact ratio for each kind of soil. It depends from many factors that could change for every geological and geotechnical situation. Anyway the grouting should be similar to the soil even if is not really possible to match both characteristics.

Approximate Cement/Water/Bentonite mix ratio are:

- for hard and medium soil: 1 / 2.5 / 0.3 (i.e. 50kg / 125kg / 15kg)

- for soft soil: 1 / 6.5 / 0.4 (i.e. 50kg / 325kg / 20kg)

The right way to mix the materials is:

1. mix the water and cement

2. add and mix the bentonite

The results have to be similar to an heavy cream.

The ratio of the cement and water determine the strength of the grout. More water decrease the strength.

- A grout too thick will be difficult to pump.

- A grout too thin solidifies and the water will separate from it.

- A mix too watery could separate cement ( on the bottom) from water and bentonite (on the top).

Quick Joint Inclinometer Casing
Flush-coupled Inclinometer Casing (DISCONTINUED)
Inclinometer Casing

 
FAQ#027 - Which type of damping fluid is recommended for filling the pendulum tanks?

We recommend to use the following mineral oil with selected viscosity:

SAE 50-90 for direct pendulums

SAE-10 for inverted pendulums.

Direct And Inverted Pendulums

 
FAQ#026 - What can we do when the inclinometer casing 'float' during installation?

If the water filled casing is lighter than grout backfill the uplift force of grout varies with the height of the grout column. If the column is short, the uplift force is low and the casing can be held in place by its own weight or with very little down-force applied from the top. When the grout sets, the bottom cap is isolated from the column of grout and there is no surface for the uplift force to act on. No more than two or three meters to 3 m need to be grouted in the first stage. If the normal bentonite/cement grout is used it needs to set for at least 12 hours before second-stage grouting.

Avoid use of a quick-set grout, since the heat of hydration could melt and deform the plastic. The two stages can be placed via an outside tremie pipe. Alternatively the first stage can be placed before lowering the casing, provided that all is done efficiently so that there is no chance of the grout setting prematurely.

Quick Joint Inclinometer Casing
Flush-coupled Inclinometer Casing (DISCONTINUED)
Inclinometer Casing

 
FAQ#025 - How get good readings with inclinometer probe?

A good practice for getting good readings with inclinometer probe is to follow these simple operations: – Use the same probe for each survey, if possible; – if you must use a different probe, be sure to note the serial number of the probe used for each survey, so any necessary corrections can be made during data processing; – protect the probe from shock, which contributes to zero shift and sensor rotation.

Transport the probe in its carrying case. – power up the probe before you lower it into the borehole. – wait 10 minutes for the probe to adjust to the temperature of the borehole up to the displayed readings will be stabilized within two units and validate data; – validate data on site using checksum statistics, if you are using the Nadir readout.

Digital MEMS Inclinometer System (DISCONTINUED)

 
FAQ#024 - How can we keep efficiently the inclinometer operating cable?

A good practice for the inclinometer users is to follow these simple recommendations: – when you connect the inclinometer operating cable to the probe, avoid overtightening the nut, since this will flatten the O-ring and reduce its effectiveness; – use a pulley assembly. It protects the inclinometer operating cable and provides a good reference index; – when very high precision is expected, it may be useful to periodically record the date and the precise length of your inclinometer operating cable; – perform regular maintenance.

Digital MEMS Inclinometer System (DISCONTINUED)

 
FAQ#023 - For obtaining best results with inclinometer, must the borehole be very close to the vertical?

Borehole should be drilled as close to the vertical as possible, however 2/3 degrees from vertical are normally accepted in specifications.

 

Quick Joint Inclinometer Casing
Flush-coupled Inclinometer Casing (DISCONTINUED)
Inclinometer Casing

FAQ#009 - Can the TEL-310S functioning be influenced from atmospheric conditions?
FAQ#009 - Can the TEL-310S functioning be influenced from atmospheric conditions?

Any factor (water, mud etc.) that could dirty the internal part of the “SUS” optical sensor unit’s cover can influence the TEL-310S correct functioning. So it is essential to protect properly the “SUS” optical sensor unit from weather conditions, leaving anyway the access possibility for cleaning/maintenance.

In any case, TEL-310S has an auto-diagnostics able to alert the user for the maintenance.  Sample solution used to protect the instrument (old TEL-310) from weather conditions.

TEL-310S Telecoordinometer

FAQ#008 - What is the 0TEL310CAL0 calibration/mounting kit and what is it for?
FAQ#008 - What is the 0TEL310CAL0 calibration/mounting kit and what is it for?

The 0TEL310CAL0 kit includes a drilling template for the wall where the “ANS” support  will be placed, and a template to be placed on the “SUS” optical sensor  unit for a possible functional check on field (pendulum’s wire simulation).

TEL-310S Telecoordinometer

FAQ#007 - Are the TEL-310S CUS control unit and the PWS power unit supplied with the fixing kit?
FAQ#007 - Are the TEL-310S CUS control unit and the PWS power unit supplied with the fixing kit?

No kit is needed. The “CUS” and “PWS” units are placed in aluminum boxes ready to be fixed on the wall through four M6 screws (not included).

TEL-310S Telecoordinometer

FAQ#006 - Is it possible to use the ANS adjustable support for the pendulum optical manual readout (coordinometer)?
FAQ#006 - Is it possible to use the ANS adjustable support for the pendulum optical manual readout (coordinometer)?

The pendulum readout fixing plate has four holes so it can be fixed, through screws, to the “ANS” adjustable support.

 

TEL-310S Telecoordinometer
Optical Pendulum Readout

FAQ#005 - Is it possible to fix the ANS adjustable support to the floor?
FAQ#005 - Is it possible to fix the ANS adjustable support to the floor?

Since the “ANS” support is articulated, it can be fixed to the floor; this can be useful in case the pendulum’s wire is too far from the walls.

TEL-310S Telecoordinometer

FAQ#004 - Is it possible to place the SUS optical sensor unit with the X axis perpendicular to the wall where the ANS support is fixed?
FAQ#004 - Is it possible to place the SUS optical sensor unit with the X axis perpendicular to the wall where the ANS support is fixed?

The TEL-310S telecoordinometer has the following measuring range:

  •  X axis: 145mm (150mm nominal),
  •  Y axis: 60mm.

To use the “ANS” adjustable support you must have the “X” axis parallel to the wall: so it is not possible to fix the “SUS” optical sensor unit perpendicular to the wall using the “ANS” adjustable support.

 

TEL-310S Telecoordinometer

FAQ#003 - Which are the needed conditions to use the ANS adjustable support for TEL-310S if you need to monitor the direct pendulum's wire?
FAQ#003 - Which are the needed conditions to use the ANS adjustable support for TEL-310S if you need to monitor the direct pendulum's wire?

To fix the “SUS” optical sensor unit through the “ANS” support, it is necessary that the direct pendulum’s wire is at a distance of d=230 mm. from the wall.

To achieve that, the direct pendulum’s tank has to be placed at a distance of  D=20 mm. from the wall: in this way is guaranteed that the pendulum’s wire is exactly at the center of the “SUS” optical sensor unit.

TEL-310S Telecoordinometer
Direct And Inverted Pendulums

FAQ#002 - What is the 0TEL310ANS0 adjustable support  for TEL-310S and what is it for?
FAQ#002 - What is the 0TEL310ANS0 adjustable support for TEL-310S and what is it for?

The “ANS” adjustable support (0TEL310ANS0) has been developed to support and fix the “SUS” optical sensor unit (0TEL310SUS0) of the new TEL-310S telecoordinometer. The support is fixed to the wall through two M16 threaded bars, of 370 mm. length (supplied). Once the “SUS” optical sensor unit is fixed to the support, it is possible to adjust the settings in order to place the pendulum’s wire in the chosen position within the instrument measuring range.

TEL-310S Telecoordinometer

FAQ#001 - If the SUS optical sensor unit is removed for maintenance, is it possible to continue the monitoring using the pendulum optical manual readout?
FAQ#001 - If the SUS optical sensor unit is removed for maintenance, is it possible to continue the monitoring using the pendulum optical manual readout?

It is possible to use the pendulum optical manual readout instead of TEL-310S “SUS”  optical sensor unit without any regulation of the “ANS” support.

It is also possible to start the pendulum’s monitoring with the pendulum optical manual readout and then automate the readings with TEL-310S telecoordinometer , without changing its initial zero.

TEL-310S Telecoordinometer
Optical Pendulum Readout