- Piezometers (8)
- Inclinometers and Tiltmeters (25)
- RDS Railway Deformation System (6)
- Pendulums (1)
- Settlement Gauges (9)
- Pressure cells (5)
- Load Cells (3)
- Extensometers (1)
- Crackmeters and Jointmeters (1)
- Strain Gauges and Thermometers (3)
- Readout units and dataloggers (48)
- Cables, Accessories and Software (2)
Sisgeo suggest that frozen water within the inclinometer casings is to be avoided due to following reasons:
- Ice within the casing will affect functionality of the systems by blocking the individual probes;
- Mechanical damages can occur to the probes, but also to the inclinometer casing due to the expansion of frozen water
In any case, inclinometers and DEX probes can work until -30°C so that sensors will be not damaged.
What can be done to avoid this?
- insert a heating cable that keeps water temperature above 0°C;
- remove water from the inclinometer casing;
- place the inclinometer/DEX probes at locations where temperatures remain above 0°C.
The maximum instrument cable length from DEX probe to datalogger is 200 m. If the automatic data acquisition system includes distributed external multiplexer box, the maximum cable length is 200m from DEX probe to multiplexer box plus 200m from multiplexer box to OMNIAlog (in total 400m).
The cable lengths depend from many factors, first of all installation and cable protections (screen, earth, etc...). Assuming that instruments are installed in a workmanlike, for the maximum cable lengths should be followed the next suggestions:
DIGITAL INSTRUMENTS: see FAQ#073
ANALOGUE INSTRUMENTS: see both documents:
Cable length guide line with internal multiplexers
Cable length guide line with external multiplexers
FAQ#037 - Which is the linear thermal expansion coefficient of the graduated flat cable (tape) of Water Level Indicators (WLI) and BRS settlement probes?
The linear thermal expansion coefficient of the flat graduated cable is 16x10E-6 m/ °C.
The profiler consists of:
- a stainless steel measurement sensor for pressure measures;
- a cable reel containing the liquid tank;
- an electro-hydraulic cable for signals transmission;
- a tripod on which the reel/tank should be positioned.
The electro-hydraulic cable follows the probe (measuring sensor) to which it is connected. A small steel cable to pull the profiler probe is also provided; it should be situated into the same HDPE tube where the probe pass through (readings with two operators with both sides of HDPE tube accessible) or in a second tube located parallel to the first one (readings with one operator or one not-accessible side; in this last case a pulley system is recommended).
Finally, what you need to execute readings with the profiler is only a probe in HDPE with diameter ≥ 50 mm. We suggest you the HDPE and not a metallic tube because this kind of tube (without crash-it) must be adapted to the embankment differential settlements. It is advised to use a HDPE tube with diameter which is not more than 50mm to avoid mistakes or less accuracy in readings.
DEX system has been designed for automatic soil settlement monitoring (vertical movement) in unattended location. DEX system consists of a string of DEX probes installed in borehole within a ABS inclinometer casing. DEX-S, the combined inclinometer-settlement probe, provides both horizontal movements (X, Y-axis) and vertical settlement (Z-axis) for 3-D borehole automatic profile monitoring.
The arms of the spider only keep the magnet in place while grouting, but the grout couples the magnet to the surroundig soil. Grout mix shall be controlled (ratio water/cement) during grouting operation according to the soil application.
Sisgeo liquid mix is de-aired at factory and it is supplied sealed in special tank. However in the DSM reference gauge there is a high sensitive sensor which is able to monitor the weight of the liquid within the reservoir. In the case of the air bubbles come over decreasing the level of the liquid in the reservoir the sensor measures this change. Thus air bubbles are not usually a problem.
FAQ#010 - Which is the freezing temperature of the Sisgeo liquid mix for H-Levels LLS and Multipoint Settlement Systems system liquid?
Sisgeo liquid is a mix of 50% glycerin and 50% water. This mix have a freezing temperature of about -23°C.