Tailings dams

Tailings dams are engineered structures built to store and contain the waste materials called tailings that result from mining and mineral extraction processes. Tailings dams can present environmental risks if not adequately designed, constructed, maintained and monitored.

What is tailings dams monitoring? A tailings dam is a structure used in mining operations to store waste material, or tailings, that is produced during the processing of mineral ores. Tailings are the finely ground rock particles and other materials that are left over after the desired mineral has been extracted from the ore. The […]

Caverns and underground mines

Underground mine, also known as caverns, are usually monitored with many geotechnical instruments to grant its safety. The picture shows the drilling and installation of a MEXID miniaturised borehole extensometer.

What is cavern mines monitoring? Cavern mines, also known as underground mines, are a type of mining operation that involves the extraction of minerals or resources from underground caverns or cavities. The stability of the caverns can be impacted by several factors, such as changes in water pressure, changes in the rock mass properties, and […]

Open pit mines

The image shows an open-pit mine, one of the most important geotechnical excavation works that man can undertake. The monitoring system in a mine is very important to ensure the efficiency of the mine workings and, above all, the safety of the miners.

What is open pit mines monitoring? Open pit mines are large mining operations where materials are extracted from the earth. They are called “open pit” because they are created by removing large amounts of rock and soil from the ground, creating a large open hole or pit.Geotechnical monitoring in open pit mines is important for […]


viaducts are usually utilized for roads or railway. Viaduct SHM includes the geotechnical monitoring of their foundations and the structural monitoring of the main concrete parts. SHM for viaducts is very important to grant the safety of the users of the infrastructures.

What is viaducts monitoring? A viaduct is a type of bridge that is made up of a series of small spans, typically supported by piers or columns. They are often used to connect different levels of a city or to link separate sections of a transportation network. Various types of instruments are used in viaduct […]

Truss metal bridges

truss metal bridge usually need a monitoring system to control the stability of the pile foundations, the thermal expansions of the metal parts and strain and stresses generated.

What is truss metal bridges monitoring? Truss metal bridge is a type of bridge that uses a series of interconnected triangles to support the bridge deck and transfer loads to the abutments or piers. The truss is a framework of metal bars or tubes that are arranged in a series of triangles, which are known […]

Arch bridges

arch bridges was a common construction technology in the past. It is important to monitor this kind of structure to control the safety of the structure and so the safety of the users of the bridge. The SHM on arch bride usually involves tilt meters and hidraulic settlement guages.

What is arch bridges monitoring? Arch bridges are structures that rely on the strength and stability of their arches to support the bridge deck and transfer loads to the abutments or piers. Arch bridge monitoring involves both geotechnical and structural monitoring to ensure the safety and long-term performance of the bridge. Geotechnical monitoring of an […]

Cable-stayed bridges

this picture shows the De Gasperi Bridge in Parma, Italy. This is a cable-stayed bridge that was monitored with displacement transducers, load cells, temperature gauges, tilt meters, accelerometers and autometic data acquisition system.

What is cable-stayed bridges monitoring? Cable-stayed bridges are complex structures that consist of a deck supported by cables that are anchored to one or more towers. These cables are under significant tension and are critical components of the bridge’s structural integrity. Structural monitoring of cable-stayed bridges involves the measurement of various parameters such as the […]


this picture shows the “Colosseum Area” in Rome during the construction and excavation of the new Rome Metro Line C. Protect the heritage in this project is a key-point of designers and construction company.

What is heritage monitoring? Heritage geotechnical and structural monitoring is the process of continuously monitoring structures such as historical buildings, monuments, and archaeological sites. Geotechnical monitoring involves monitoring the behaviour of the soil or rock surrounding the structure, while structural monitoring involves measuring the behaviour of the structure itself. This information can help identify any […]

Skyscrapers & buildings

this picture shows the “city life” district in Milan. It is very important to monitor the geotechnical problems during the foundation construction of the skysrapers.

What is skyscraper and building monitoring? For new skyscrapers and buildings, structural and geotechnical monitoring is essential to ensure the safety, performance, and durability of the building. Some of the main structural and geotechnical topics to monitor for new skyscrapers include: Foundation and soil conditions: monitoring the foundation and soil conditions of the building to […]

Retaining walls

It is very important to monitor the performance of a retaining wall to protect infrastructure such as roads or railways downstream of it. Geotechnical monitoring of retaining walls usually includes piezometers and IPI in-place inclinometers, while structural monitoring of retaining walls includes tiltmeters, anchor load cells and crack gauges.

What is retaining walls monitoring? Retaining walls are commonly employed in landslides as a mitigation measure to stabilize and control slope movements. Geotechnical and structural monitoring of retaining walls involves the continuous measurement and assessment of the performance and stability of the retaining wall structure. This is done to ensure that the retaining wall is […]

Rock fall and topple landslides

San Leo rockfall in Italy. Sisgeo supplied some sensors for the SHM structural monitoring of the buildings above the mountain and some geotechnical monitoring sensors to control the stability of the rocks and ground.

What are rock falls and topple landslides monitoring? Topple and rock fall monitoring are geotechnical monitoring techniques used to assess and mitigate the risk of rock falls and topples, which are two types of slope failures that can occur in rocky terrain. Topple monitoring involves the continuous monitoring of the stability of large boulders or […]

Rotational landslides

It is very important to install a monitoring system on unstable slopes to ensure the safety of people living downstream. The simplest instruments to use are the BRAIN removable inclinometer system, standpipe piezometers and wire extensometers.

What is a rotational landslide? A rotational landslide, also known as a slump, is a type of landslide that involves the downward and outward movement of a mass of soil or rock along a curved surface. Rotational landslides often occur in areas with slopes or hillsides that have a concave shape, where the slope changes […]